Cardiovascular Disease & Diagnosis
The NO.1 Silent Killer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels, including coronary artery disease, stroke, and the peripheral arteries of the organs and limbs. CVD is a leading cause of death globally, accounting for an estimated 18 million deaths per year, and it disproportionately impacts women and individuals with lower socioeconomic status. In the United States, CVD is the leading cause of death, responsible for approximately 655,000 deaths each year, and is characterized as the #1 silent killer since the majority (> 60%) of individuals impacted by the disease are asymptomatic (without any signs or symptoms). At least 1 in 10 individuals with cardiovascular disease will have progression of disease that can lead to significant disability and poor quality of life – contributing to over $400 billion in health care costs and thousands of years of productive work life.
Outdated & Inaccurate Diagnosis
Cardiovascular Diagnosis has almost exclusively relied on serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL) in the assessment of individuals with CVD risks since 1970s. It have lower accuracy (~70%), especially in women compared to men and are often non-diagnostic of CVD risk or progression.